Thursday, February 5, 2009

Banggeris tree that has been found difficult.

Banggeris (Bengeris) is a tree that should not be ditebang at the time of logging the forest. In fact this tree has been difficult to obtain. Banggeris tree as the main tree honey bee nest.

Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub., in Engl. & Prantl. Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 3 (1891)
Latin for 'emergent or high', referring to the height of the tree.
Abauria excelsa Becc., Koompassia parvifolia Prain

Emergent tree up to 76 m tall and 152 cm dbh. Stem very smooth. Stipules ca. 3 mm long. Leaves alternate, compound, leaflets alternate, penni-veined, glabrous, whitish below. Flowers ca. 2.5 mm diameter, white, placed in panicles. Fruits ca. 108 mm long, orange-red, extremely flattened, light weight wind dispersed pods, twisted along the length axis.

In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp forests up to 300 m altitude. Common at alluvial sites and on hillsides. Also found on limestone. In secondary forests usually present as a pre-disturbance remnant tree.

Trees used to collect honey. Wood is used for charcoal, heavy construction and furniture.

Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, East-Kalimantan), Philippines.

Local names in Borneo
Benggeris, Bunggaris, Kayu raja, Kempas madu, Mengaris, Tanjit, Tapang.

Naational Herbarium

Koompassia malaccensis

Family: Leguminosae
Other Common Names: Impas (Sabah), Mengris (Sarawak).

Distribution: Malaysia and Indonesia; throughout lowland forests in rather swampy areas and also on hillsides.

The Tree: May reach a height of 180 ft with clear, usually straight boles to 80 to 90 ft, trunk diameters may reach 6 ft and more over heavy buttresses.

The Wood:
General Characteristics: Heartwood brick red when freshly cut, darkening on exposure to an orange red or red brown with numerous yellow-brown streaks due to soft tissue associated with the pores; sapwood white or pale yellow about 2 in. wide in large trees and clearly defined. Grain typical- interlocked, sometimes wary; texture rather coarse; luster variable; odor and taste not distinctive. The timber is slightly acidic and may be corrosive to metals. Streaks of brittle stone-like tissue are fairly common and are a source of mechanical weakness.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.72; air-dry density 55 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (37) 14,530 2,410 7,930
15% 17,680 2,690 9,520
Janka side hardness 1,480 lb for green material and 1,710 lb for dry.

Drying and Shrinkage: The timber usually dries well though with some tendency to warping and checking. If included phloem is present, splits are liable to develop. Kiln schedule T6-02 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.0%; tangential 7.4%; volumetric 14.5%. Reported to hold its place well once seasoned.

Working Properties: The timber is difficult to work with hand and machine tools; dresses to a reasonably smooth surface.

Durability: Reported to be resistant to attack by decay fungi but vulnerable to termite activity, both subterranean and dry-wood. Sapwood liable to powder-post beetle attack.

Preservation: Reported to treat readily with absorptions of preservative oils as high as 20 pcf.

Uses: Heavy construction work, railroad crossties, plywood core stock, parquet flooring, pallets (should be treated where termite attack may be a particular hazard).

USDA Forest Service

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