Sunday, February 15, 2009

Bat Concervation: Survey Techniques Training

Training is an important part of any field research and is integrated within our survey projects. Research equipment, including a set of harp traps, has been donated to the Educational Biology department of the University of Palangkaraya. Since 2004 traps have also been sent to The Nature Conservancy, Wildlife Conservation Society and Indonesian Institute of Sciences. A series of training workshops has also taken place:

East Kalimantan:
During April 2005 two short training events were organised for TNC staff, conservationists, researchers and students from the Samarinda-Balikpapan area. Training focused on how to conduct a basic forest bat survey using harp traps, bat handling and identification. These events also served as rapid surveys of two important protected forests.

In Sungai Wain Protection Forest near Balikpapan a rapid survey followed by a formal training workshop for local ngo staff and staff/students from Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda was hosted by Matt Struebig and TNC. The workshop followed a typical survey schedule whereby traps are set in the morning/afternoon and then checked in the evening and following morning, after which they are moved to a new position. The 20 participants gained valuable experience in survey design, setting traps, using taxonomic keys and bat identification. With no known caves in the area, the bat community of Sungai Wain resembles that of Tanjung Puting by being dominated by forest specialists.

In Sungai Lesan Protection Forest in Berau District, less formal training of TNC staff took place during survey work. Participants worked on the survey programme and were trained to set traps and identify the most common bats to species. Having good quality forest cover and being near to known karst areas has undoubtedly contributed to an impressive diversity of bats at Sungai Lesan. Together with a large orangutan population, TNC will use this information to lobby for increased protection of this area.

Central Kalimantan:
In November 2005, a two-day training course led by Dorothea Pio and University of Palangkaraya students Norma, Hetty, Misnandeni and Patur Rachman was conducted in Tangkiling, a cave system about 30km from Palangkaraya. Sixty-five students and two members of staff were trained in bat field-techniques.

Following support from Bat Conservation International a training manual has been developed that supplements existing field guides. The manual was written with Rakhmad Sujarno Kudus and Angela Benton-Browne in both English and Bahasa Indonesia. Please contact us for a copy.

Thursday, February 5, 2009

Banggeris tree that has been found difficult.

Banggeris (Bengeris) is a tree that should not be ditebang at the time of logging the forest. In fact this tree has been difficult to obtain. Banggeris tree as the main tree honey bee nest.

Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub., in Engl. & Prantl. Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 3 (1891)
Latin for 'emergent or high', referring to the height of the tree.
Abauria excelsa Becc., Koompassia parvifolia Prain

Emergent tree up to 76 m tall and 152 cm dbh. Stem very smooth. Stipules ca. 3 mm long. Leaves alternate, compound, leaflets alternate, penni-veined, glabrous, whitish below. Flowers ca. 2.5 mm diameter, white, placed in panicles. Fruits ca. 108 mm long, orange-red, extremely flattened, light weight wind dispersed pods, twisted along the length axis.

In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp forests up to 300 m altitude. Common at alluvial sites and on hillsides. Also found on limestone. In secondary forests usually present as a pre-disturbance remnant tree.

Trees used to collect honey. Wood is used for charcoal, heavy construction and furniture.

Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, East-Kalimantan), Philippines.

Local names in Borneo
Benggeris, Bunggaris, Kayu raja, Kempas madu, Mengaris, Tanjit, Tapang.

Naational Herbarium

Koompassia malaccensis

Family: Leguminosae
Other Common Names: Impas (Sabah), Mengris (Sarawak).

Distribution: Malaysia and Indonesia; throughout lowland forests in rather swampy areas and also on hillsides.

The Tree: May reach a height of 180 ft with clear, usually straight boles to 80 to 90 ft, trunk diameters may reach 6 ft and more over heavy buttresses.

The Wood:
General Characteristics: Heartwood brick red when freshly cut, darkening on exposure to an orange red or red brown with numerous yellow-brown streaks due to soft tissue associated with the pores; sapwood white or pale yellow about 2 in. wide in large trees and clearly defined. Grain typical- interlocked, sometimes wary; texture rather coarse; luster variable; odor and taste not distinctive. The timber is slightly acidic and may be corrosive to metals. Streaks of brittle stone-like tissue are fairly common and are a source of mechanical weakness.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.72; air-dry density 55 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (37) 14,530 2,410 7,930
15% 17,680 2,690 9,520
Janka side hardness 1,480 lb for green material and 1,710 lb for dry.

Drying and Shrinkage: The timber usually dries well though with some tendency to warping and checking. If included phloem is present, splits are liable to develop. Kiln schedule T6-02 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.0%; tangential 7.4%; volumetric 14.5%. Reported to hold its place well once seasoned.

Working Properties: The timber is difficult to work with hand and machine tools; dresses to a reasonably smooth surface.

Durability: Reported to be resistant to attack by decay fungi but vulnerable to termite activity, both subterranean and dry-wood. Sapwood liable to powder-post beetle attack.

Preservation: Reported to treat readily with absorptions of preservative oils as high as 20 pcf.

Uses: Heavy construction work, railroad crossties, plywood core stock, parquet flooring, pallets (should be treated where termite attack may be a particular hazard).

USDA Forest Service