Wednesday, January 21, 2009

Forest and land fires, What should be done immediately?

In every incident of fire and forest land, there is always the question, "What should be done immediately?"

The main and urgent (in the short term) that needs to be done when there is a fire extinguishing. Until now, efforts to extinguishing forest fires and land continue to be true, but the results have not been significant. This is because the comparison with the resources extinguisher luasahan land that does not burn balanced. In addition, the management of fire fighting is still not effective.

For the effectiveness of fire fighting and forest land, some of the things that need to be done is:
Extinction in the Land / Field

* Mobilization and involvement of various parties in the fire fighting activities.
Currently, the involvement of various parties in extinguishing forest fires and land is still minimal. Community involvement is very important, because they are located directly on the location of fire.
* Installation and Placement Tools extinguisher in a location Rawan fire.
Currently, most equipment concentrate fire on the office / posko located in the city of provincial / district. So that at the time required to extinction, a mobilization tool constraints. In addition, the areas identified in fire-prone, there is rarely a means of water container, such embung-embung water. Installation and placement of equipment / facilities must be done before the fire.
* Search for substitute water for fire fighting.
Water is the most important element in fire fighting. However, not all of the location of the fire there is water, so to look for water that can be used to turn off the fire. The material can be used, among others, soil, sand, tree trunks and wet / fresh prostrate. Substitution of water can only be done for the surface fire. Turf fire for land, water is absolutely necessary.
* Selection Method Extinction right.
There are several methods of extinguishing forest fires and land. Currently, most methods used are extinguishing the fire / fire directly, though not all types of fires can be directly by others with extinction. Extinction can be done when the fire has not been widespread and the number of gang extinguisher adequate. However, when a fire has occurred on the broad scale, extinction is not directly effective, they should look for other methods. An effective method for fire that is already widespread localize fire. The concept is the expense of areas that have been burned with a certain area rescuing other broader.

Extinction of the Air

* Heavy Buatan
Rain is the best way and most effective way to put out the fire. Unfortunately rain occurs naturally in the season. Land and forest fires usually occur during the dry season, so it is very difficult to expect the rain to help pemadamanya. How can that be implemented is an artificial rain. However, artificial rain can be held when conditions awannya possible. Several incidents of fire, rain made terbukti significant fires and reduce the impact.
* Air bombardment (Extinction Using Aircraft)
Fire fighting aircraft can effectively use the available water resources and adequate capacity transport aircraft. Bombardment of several efforts to water, such as in Riau and Central Kalimantan, efektifitasnya still low, because the carrying capacity of water a small plane (300-500 liters), so that the level of the fire, can not be quenched significantly.

Method extinction from the air requires a high cost. In fact, the problem often cited by government agencies in handling forest fires and land cost is a problem.

The question, whether the government has enough funds to put out the fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan to use aircraft from Russia, while the government always complained about the limited funds on fire? If kendalanya funds, extinction of land (in the field) is a cheap way, provided that is done is done in a way that is more effective (to a certain location or condition of the air aided extinction). But if there is money, why not do from the first to use fire fighting capacity of the aircraft? So that the fire will not separah at this time. In addition to ability, the government required a willingness to overcome the fire and its impact, and that the will should arise because of the government, not a protest or because of pressure from neighboring countries.

The bankruptcy Industry Pulp and Paper Indonesia

The global economic crisis at almost the entire world, including Indonesia, has made the labor victims. PHK become an option for companies exposed to electrical current economic crisis. But in fact, related or not with the crisis, PHK of labor become a guide for employers to benefit as big. Even the fate of affected workers PHK a place of negotiations between employers and the government.

This is evident in the case of PT RAPP PHK employee a thousand reasons why the economic crisis. In order to ensure the continuity of operations, management leadership Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP) forced resigned and PHK thousands employee. PHK but that is to press the government so that RAPP (and IKPP) in Riau can use the "illegal timber" has be confiscated by the local police for their production. RAPP production (and IKPP) was stopped for 13 minutes because upset supply of wood for the production level to maintain a stable and efficient. Upset wood supply because forest cutting done by RAPP, forbidden by the government because clearly harmful environment.

Case forest cuting illegally also laden political interests between the government and employers. This can be seen with the related investigation SP3 cases illegal logging is carried out 13 timber companies in Riau by law enforcement (High Court and POLDA Riau). Although 13 companies to the timber is clearly violated Minister's Decree No. 541/2002 and Government Regulation No. 34/2002, which has the authority negate the governor and regents to issue business license on the Utilization of Wood Forest Plants (IUPHHK-HT).

At least 34 have been issued in Riau IUPHHK-HT broadly 378,299.50 hectares. To 34 IUPHHK-HT is given on natural forests, which criteria should be allowed to land the Forest Plantation Industry (HTI) is the land empty, the reed or shrub. Permission should not be above the potential of natural forest wood above 10 cubic meters per hectare.

The process of giving permission and SP3 cases to the illegal logging of timber to 13 companies in Riau showed evidence keberpihakan the government to companies. The government whispering while employers get the problem. although the problem as a result of the act through their own practices, such as illegal logging. However, when poor people get a natural ecological disaster as a result of the prolonged ekploitasi natural resources, even the government says, it is as usual and that it is a natural phenomenon, and not least, the money in the disaster response even corruption by the State apparatus.

In addition to PT Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP), other companies that enjoy the natural forests are PT Indah KIAT Pulp and Paper (IKPP), PT Arara Abadi, PT Bina Duta Laksana, PT Rimba Mandau Lestari, PT Jaya Main segment , Madukoro PT, PT Merbau Pelalawan Lestari, PT Nusa Manunggal Prima, PT Bukit Indah Batubuh Sel, PT Citra Sumber Sejahtera, and PT Mitra Selaras Kembang. With the SP3, the forest products that have been will be returned to the company and this company can continue business forest loging harmful for all people of Indonesia.

In addition to the license and remove SP3 cases to the illegal logging of timber companies, the government also provides various convenience to companies to continue to extend this concession HTI in various ways, including by using violence.

This can be seen on the Tragedy mysticism nugget at Bengkalis district, on 18 December 2008 in which PT Arara Abadi (one of the companies that get SP3 illegal logging cases) by using the strength of POLDA Riau, Satpol PP, attack the settlements inhabited KK 1300 and has been burning more less than 500 homes, 2 killed five, shot 2 people and dozens of other farmers injured and arrested without a clear reason. When this village, which is recognized by the State administrative changed immediately become HTI plantation. In this case the government has not only do violation human rights with the weight but does not recognize the very real existence of the people as one of the elements of a nation.

Chrusading something that will be reasonable if this is left to continue. The Government will continue to be subject to the owner of capital and will continue to torment the people. Therefore, we stated:

1. PHK reject conducted by PT. RAPP industry and pulp and paper in Indonesia, for reasons clear only to be resourceful PHK from the company to negotiate with the government so that they are given the management of natural forest expansion.
2. SP3 reject cases illegal logging issued by law enforcement in Riau, because clearly it conflicts with a sense of justice for the people and will remain in the Indonesia environtment
3. Rescue of the pulp and paper industry by the government must involve trade unions, farmers' unions, indigenous peoples, environmental organizations and elements of the other community. This will be the assurance that the government will precede the interests of the people rather than the interests of capital owners.

Environmental damage in the Central Climate Change Threats

(by Ari Muhammad)

REPORT of the Fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or IPCC end of 2007 the temperature changes, the impact has been to many physical and biological systems of nature. Level possible threat of climate change is high confidence, has a number Percentage of around 80%.

Reports working group responsible for the knowledge and technology (Scientific & Technology) and even estimate the end of the 21st century, earth's temperature will increase 1,8-4 C, while the surface of the sea water will rise up to 28 - 43 cm, if there is no serious effort decrease the concentration of Glass House Gas (Grk).

Poor quality of the environment due to edge issues and the impact of environmental factors in the development of a major environmental disaster that affects the quality of social and economic development. This put the region on the vulnerability of the larger environmental disaster. This situation means that climate change will encourage and accelerate the disaster and environmental degradation.

Habituate just what happens in big cities, for example Jakarta. When the green and the water catchment and lacking (plus lack of coordination among the guard and maintain the management of the watershed upstream to downstream) has decreased due to inconsistencies of local governments (local governments) to plan space own governance. Rain with a high intensity easily "disappear" some major areas Jakarta.

On the other hand, the study reports the Department of Public Works (2007) said that the impact of the threat of climate change increase the surface of the sea water will become a threat to some industries such as oil rig and gas in the sea, transportation, fishery, agriculture and ecotourism villages and coastal communities. This report is the strengthening of statement fourth IPCC report.

In the context of decentralization and autonomy, environmental degradation, particularly due to changes in land-including the forest-fire, and legal and illegal logging have been reported and often delivered through a number of advocacy organizations that have a concern with environmental issues. Thus the revitalization of the policy environment, including the threat of climate change is already on top priority.

IPCC said that the South will experience a decrease in rainfall and the North region will have increased rainfall. The threat of drought due to El-Nino phenomenon would also (again) become factor incentives for forest fires that have been the millions of hectares of forest land. Threats to increased in surface sea water and the threat of sinking the islands.

The failure of environmental management is including the "marginalization" environmental issues by each sector. For example, appear on the issue of watershed management. Data shows that the issue of water in major cities in Indonesia, not only due to high water run off as a result of the lack of and catch the water but also water quality due to industrial pollution, sea water intrusion, the decline in ground water and drought.

Flooding problems at this time, not only dominated in urban areas. In the scope of climate change and the failure of environmental management before, the increase of rainfall a potential threat to flood the facilities and infrastructure damaged and wet lands.

With some throught climate change convention as the commitment countries in the fight against global warming and start said little time in the last two years the issue of climate change adaptation to be the main focus of attention and developing countries and the poor.

The limited resources of funds, technology, and human positioned countries are highly vulnerable to climate change. Adaptation to climate change is defined as the ability of a system (including ecosystems, social, economic, and institutional) to overcome the impact of climate change. Therefore, these countries are encouraged to have the ability adaptation (adaptative capacity), the ability of a system (including ecosystems, social, economic, and institutional) to adjust to the impact of climate change, reducing the damage, take advantage of the opportunity, and overcome the consequences.

With the push of adaptation to climate change into national development agenda or the region, risk considerations and the impact of climate change is translated not only in the medium term strategic plan, but also to the policies and institutional structures.

During this time, more focus on the development of economic considerations alone. But evidence shows that economic development is not a conception environment will be more "sensitive" to the economic ruin itself. Hurricanes Mitch incident, that the country's economic growth in their overthrow of 4-5% year. Data presented the World Bank between 1984 to 2003, the percentage of loss of national income three times larger occurred in the low-income countries and middle (80% of the world) as a result of climate change.

Problems in the climate change, is a loss incurred will be greater than the fix cost after the disaster occurred. Therefore, the Government should have put the issue of the failure of environmental management as a priority at this time.

Second priority, budget allocation and Expenditure Budget Financing Country or Region should have been efforts to integrate adaptation in all sectors related to the vulnerability to climate change. In other words, rather than waiting 'litle money' from the countries that are required to provide funding for adaptation commitment not know when that realization.