Thursday, August 20, 2009

Biopiracy in the Third World Countries

Case Review and Practice in East Kalimantan
By: Kusnadi Wirasapoetra

What is Biopiracy?
An activity and utilization of biological materials, especially genetic resources, traditional wisdom and their devices indigenous / local without the approval and the community and the country of origin of materials and traditional wisdom.
"What is sought by the red hair and great body high, come to us, and ask that this ago to take samples from many plant our gardens and forests. How was where all of that?

Questions on the dilontarkan by a mother who came from the Dayak tribe Paser to me when about mid-1994. Previous about 3 January 1993, spread the news in daily newspapers Manuntung (Kaltim Post now), that the earth's crop pegs have successfully dibudidayakan by 2 people citizens of North Australia, was also being carried out testing or chemical analysis (ekstraksinya) The Earth to the womb some diseases.
Next in 1998, when I travel in the blood of Tanjung Issuy, precisely in the village Mancong, get news from the local community through the discussions in the stalls, not that long serombongan researchers have come from foreign countries to Japan are the type of survey, palm-trees for paleman bahanpangan. Questions and newspaper news that may be very similar also occurred in various regions across the Indnesia.

Resources Traditional Knowledge Society
Natural resources (in this case forest) is used by many native people of East Kalimantan, in addition to wood for building materials in the home, as well as other resources, rattan, gum resin, honey, and so forth. Gum resin used for the community as a putty material, lighting and lungun (chest). A bird believed to nest the various types of food and certain medicines. Honey bees as a food that is believed to increase energy and bat a certain disease. In addition madunya, honey wax traditionally by the Ancient Chinese used as embrocation. Tengkawang, known for making cooking oil, butter green. Biodiversity, biological resources of the island of Kalimantan is not limited. But some of the illustrations give a picture of the rich genetic resources for industry at this time of existence is threatened.

Dayak Paser people, who are in the region of East Kalimantan to the south that is included in group Ngaju-Luwangan, when the stomach feel sick and have symptoms of diarrhea, the leaves of a direct search. When he fell ill find rice leaf worm, he immediately took a kind of sap, then ago sprayed on rice that fell ill. When he found it burn, then it provides a kind of oil from one of the forest trees to be smeared on the wound.

Similarly for the Kayan tribe Dayal APO (APO Kayan Group) felt when the stomach pain, the kind of gaharu wood ampelur taken to mengbatinya. Community Resources Banuaq, known as the treatment of cancer. There are similar plants pegs earth taken root by the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan to muscle disease, is not enthusiastic, increase appetite, increase virility, cure diabetes mixture, and so forth. Since Borneo island is known, then since it is already exploited natural resources and knowledge. To date, the fate indigenous (Dayak) in Kalimantan have no access to natural resources and knowledge from generation to generation owned and has been, caused by the policies of natural resource management that dominated Leh countries.
Various biological process that is identical with the indigenous Dayak culture, protection and utilization of hereditary awake well. An example of genetic resources Kalimantan that was unearthed from a cultural ceremony purchase process, which require different types of plants and animals as a condition to running activities.

Results of research CSBI (Seed Bank Community Improvement Program) Foundation in 1995 Rice, biological diversity in the traditional ceremony for purchase 50-100 plant species used, ranging from hard plant, herb, flower, type of rattan and bamboo-bambuan. In the same year, the results inventarisai types of rice in the local indigenous Dayak Paser and some indigenous Benuaq, Tidung in East Kalimantan, found 400 (four hundred) local varieties of rice paddy fields and mountains. Then in 1999-2000, the evaluation of rice varieties by the community and Indonesia Rice Foundation in cooperation with the Bogor Balitan, found almost as many as 300 varieties in the local District Paser, Samarinda and the City Build (Kutai). This amount is far from a reality that exists. In fact, the dry season long years 1997-1998, many local varieties of rice are lost because farmers failed to harvest and forest fires and land, in some rural areas Mahakam river, the region Bentian, Banuaq.

East Kalimantan a wide area 211,440 km2, has a biological diversity that is high enough, so various ethnic Dayaknya. Dayak communities in East Kalimantan with kamum termed indigenous (indegenous people), according to the English dictionary (hall Library, 1991), contains the definition, comes from the place concerned. The researchers (etnolog and anthropologist) agree that the native island Kalimantan adala mainland immigrants from Asia, ie, Yunan Province, South China. Dayak tribe of Borneo, including Indonesia, Malaysia and Bunai Darusalam, is not known exactly how the group number. And not easily grouping against Dayak tribe. According to the version of the Tjilik Riwut (1958), former Governor of Central Kalimantan in the book Building Kalimantan, the Dayak tribe into eighteen tribes for the entire island of Kalimantan is divided into small tribal 403-450.

According to data issued in 1996 by Summer Institute of Linguistics the U.S., 4 in Kalimantan prpinsi there are 82 languages used in daily life Leh Dayak tribe. Keragamana the language of this showed high enough in the process of high culture. In the same year, the original indigenous population of 9,110,500 inhabitants of Kalimantan, including a small region, Sabah and Serawak. This amount is certainly still far from the actual condition, the level of population growth on the island of Kalimantan.

While resources and traditional knowledge for the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan include plants, animals and other materials that are sacred, seremonial (traditional ceremony) and the heritage from generation to generation. In ownership of resources and knowledge for the Dayak people are usually not binding (communal / joint), had a spiritual function and feasible to protection. Therefore, maintaining the resources and knowledge this is the most important part of the struggle of the people on the Dayak tribe of resources and traditional knowledge (including land area and territorial) are hereditary which is protected by rules of local custom.

Exploitation of natural resources Kalimantan, through the control of forest activities through the activities of Forest Rights (HPH), Industrial Forest Plantation (HTI), transmigration, plantations, modern agriculture, mining is controlled by the authorities and the investor (capital), is the exploitation of the rights of natural and traditional indigenous Kalimantan. Not only on the level of control of forest only, exploitation of natural resources and traditional knowledge is also done by the capitalist (multinational companies) through the research institutions, private government, institution and individual universities in Indonesia have long since occurred. Impact of exploitation is the damage and devastation that occurred involved in this research institutions, pharmaceutical companies (medical, cultural (craft / artefacts), the system of natural resource management in Kalimantan that lead to pillage the resources of traditional knowledge and biodiversity.

Sunday, February 15, 2009

Bat Concervation: Survey Techniques Training

Training is an important part of any field research and is integrated within our survey projects. Research equipment, including a set of harp traps, has been donated to the Educational Biology department of the University of Palangkaraya. Since 2004 traps have also been sent to The Nature Conservancy, Wildlife Conservation Society and Indonesian Institute of Sciences. A series of training workshops has also taken place:

East Kalimantan:
During April 2005 two short training events were organised for TNC staff, conservationists, researchers and students from the Samarinda-Balikpapan area. Training focused on how to conduct a basic forest bat survey using harp traps, bat handling and identification. These events also served as rapid surveys of two important protected forests.

In Sungai Wain Protection Forest near Balikpapan a rapid survey followed by a formal training workshop for local ngo staff and staff/students from Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda was hosted by Matt Struebig and TNC. The workshop followed a typical survey schedule whereby traps are set in the morning/afternoon and then checked in the evening and following morning, after which they are moved to a new position. The 20 participants gained valuable experience in survey design, setting traps, using taxonomic keys and bat identification. With no known caves in the area, the bat community of Sungai Wain resembles that of Tanjung Puting by being dominated by forest specialists.

In Sungai Lesan Protection Forest in Berau District, less formal training of TNC staff took place during survey work. Participants worked on the survey programme and were trained to set traps and identify the most common bats to species. Having good quality forest cover and being near to known karst areas has undoubtedly contributed to an impressive diversity of bats at Sungai Lesan. Together with a large orangutan population, TNC will use this information to lobby for increased protection of this area.

Central Kalimantan:
In November 2005, a two-day training course led by Dorothea Pio and University of Palangkaraya students Norma, Hetty, Misnandeni and Patur Rachman was conducted in Tangkiling, a cave system about 30km from Palangkaraya. Sixty-five students and two members of staff were trained in bat field-techniques.

Following support from Bat Conservation International a training manual has been developed that supplements existing field guides. The manual was written with Rakhmad Sujarno Kudus and Angela Benton-Browne in both English and Bahasa Indonesia. Please contact us for a copy.

Thursday, February 5, 2009

Banggeris tree that has been found difficult.

Banggeris (Bengeris) is a tree that should not be ditebang at the time of logging the forest. In fact this tree has been difficult to obtain. Banggeris tree as the main tree honey bee nest.

Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub., in Engl. & Prantl. Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 3 (1891)
Latin for 'emergent or high', referring to the height of the tree.
Abauria excelsa Becc., Koompassia parvifolia Prain

Emergent tree up to 76 m tall and 152 cm dbh. Stem very smooth. Stipules ca. 3 mm long. Leaves alternate, compound, leaflets alternate, penni-veined, glabrous, whitish below. Flowers ca. 2.5 mm diameter, white, placed in panicles. Fruits ca. 108 mm long, orange-red, extremely flattened, light weight wind dispersed pods, twisted along the length axis.

In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp forests up to 300 m altitude. Common at alluvial sites and on hillsides. Also found on limestone. In secondary forests usually present as a pre-disturbance remnant tree.

Trees used to collect honey. Wood is used for charcoal, heavy construction and furniture.

Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, East-Kalimantan), Philippines.

Local names in Borneo
Benggeris, Bunggaris, Kayu raja, Kempas madu, Mengaris, Tanjit, Tapang.

Naational Herbarium

Koompassia malaccensis

Family: Leguminosae
Other Common Names: Impas (Sabah), Mengris (Sarawak).

Distribution: Malaysia and Indonesia; throughout lowland forests in rather swampy areas and also on hillsides.

The Tree: May reach a height of 180 ft with clear, usually straight boles to 80 to 90 ft, trunk diameters may reach 6 ft and more over heavy buttresses.

The Wood:
General Characteristics: Heartwood brick red when freshly cut, darkening on exposure to an orange red or red brown with numerous yellow-brown streaks due to soft tissue associated with the pores; sapwood white or pale yellow about 2 in. wide in large trees and clearly defined. Grain typical- interlocked, sometimes wary; texture rather coarse; luster variable; odor and taste not distinctive. The timber is slightly acidic and may be corrosive to metals. Streaks of brittle stone-like tissue are fairly common and are a source of mechanical weakness.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.72; air-dry density 55 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (37) 14,530 2,410 7,930
15% 17,680 2,690 9,520
Janka side hardness 1,480 lb for green material and 1,710 lb for dry.

Drying and Shrinkage: The timber usually dries well though with some tendency to warping and checking. If included phloem is present, splits are liable to develop. Kiln schedule T6-02 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.0%; tangential 7.4%; volumetric 14.5%. Reported to hold its place well once seasoned.

Working Properties: The timber is difficult to work with hand and machine tools; dresses to a reasonably smooth surface.

Durability: Reported to be resistant to attack by decay fungi but vulnerable to termite activity, both subterranean and dry-wood. Sapwood liable to powder-post beetle attack.

Preservation: Reported to treat readily with absorptions of preservative oils as high as 20 pcf.

Uses: Heavy construction work, railroad crossties, plywood core stock, parquet flooring, pallets (should be treated where termite attack may be a particular hazard).

USDA Forest Service

Wednesday, January 21, 2009

Forest and land fires, What should be done immediately?

In every incident of fire and forest land, there is always the question, "What should be done immediately?"

The main and urgent (in the short term) that needs to be done when there is a fire extinguishing. Until now, efforts to extinguishing forest fires and land continue to be true, but the results have not been significant. This is because the comparison with the resources extinguisher luasahan land that does not burn balanced. In addition, the management of fire fighting is still not effective.

For the effectiveness of fire fighting and forest land, some of the things that need to be done is:
Extinction in the Land / Field

* Mobilization and involvement of various parties in the fire fighting activities.
Currently, the involvement of various parties in extinguishing forest fires and land is still minimal. Community involvement is very important, because they are located directly on the location of fire.
* Installation and Placement Tools extinguisher in a location Rawan fire.
Currently, most equipment concentrate fire on the office / posko located in the city of provincial / district. So that at the time required to extinction, a mobilization tool constraints. In addition, the areas identified in fire-prone, there is rarely a means of water container, such embung-embung water. Installation and placement of equipment / facilities must be done before the fire.
* Search for substitute water for fire fighting.
Water is the most important element in fire fighting. However, not all of the location of the fire there is water, so to look for water that can be used to turn off the fire. The material can be used, among others, soil, sand, tree trunks and wet / fresh prostrate. Substitution of water can only be done for the surface fire. Turf fire for land, water is absolutely necessary.
* Selection Method Extinction right.
There are several methods of extinguishing forest fires and land. Currently, most methods used are extinguishing the fire / fire directly, though not all types of fires can be directly by others with extinction. Extinction can be done when the fire has not been widespread and the number of gang extinguisher adequate. However, when a fire has occurred on the broad scale, extinction is not directly effective, they should look for other methods. An effective method for fire that is already widespread localize fire. The concept is the expense of areas that have been burned with a certain area rescuing other broader.

Extinction of the Air

* Heavy Buatan
Rain is the best way and most effective way to put out the fire. Unfortunately rain occurs naturally in the season. Land and forest fires usually occur during the dry season, so it is very difficult to expect the rain to help pemadamanya. How can that be implemented is an artificial rain. However, artificial rain can be held when conditions awannya possible. Several incidents of fire, rain made terbukti significant fires and reduce the impact.
* Air bombardment (Extinction Using Aircraft)
Fire fighting aircraft can effectively use the available water resources and adequate capacity transport aircraft. Bombardment of several efforts to water, such as in Riau and Central Kalimantan, efektifitasnya still low, because the carrying capacity of water a small plane (300-500 liters), so that the level of the fire, can not be quenched significantly.

Method extinction from the air requires a high cost. In fact, the problem often cited by government agencies in handling forest fires and land cost is a problem.

The question, whether the government has enough funds to put out the fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan to use aircraft from Russia, while the government always complained about the limited funds on fire? If kendalanya funds, extinction of land (in the field) is a cheap way, provided that is done is done in a way that is more effective (to a certain location or condition of the air aided extinction). But if there is money, why not do from the first to use fire fighting capacity of the aircraft? So that the fire will not separah at this time. In addition to ability, the government required a willingness to overcome the fire and its impact, and that the will should arise because of the government, not a protest or because of pressure from neighboring countries.

The bankruptcy Industry Pulp and Paper Indonesia

The global economic crisis at almost the entire world, including Indonesia, has made the labor victims. PHK become an option for companies exposed to electrical current economic crisis. But in fact, related or not with the crisis, PHK of labor become a guide for employers to benefit as big. Even the fate of affected workers PHK a place of negotiations between employers and the government.

This is evident in the case of PT RAPP PHK employee a thousand reasons why the economic crisis. In order to ensure the continuity of operations, management leadership Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP) forced resigned and PHK thousands employee. PHK but that is to press the government so that RAPP (and IKPP) in Riau can use the "illegal timber" has be confiscated by the local police for their production. RAPP production (and IKPP) was stopped for 13 minutes because upset supply of wood for the production level to maintain a stable and efficient. Upset wood supply because forest cutting done by RAPP, forbidden by the government because clearly harmful environment.

Case forest cuting illegally also laden political interests between the government and employers. This can be seen with the related investigation SP3 cases illegal logging is carried out 13 timber companies in Riau by law enforcement (High Court and POLDA Riau). Although 13 companies to the timber is clearly violated Minister's Decree No. 541/2002 and Government Regulation No. 34/2002, which has the authority negate the governor and regents to issue business license on the Utilization of Wood Forest Plants (IUPHHK-HT).

At least 34 have been issued in Riau IUPHHK-HT broadly 378,299.50 hectares. To 34 IUPHHK-HT is given on natural forests, which criteria should be allowed to land the Forest Plantation Industry (HTI) is the land empty, the reed or shrub. Permission should not be above the potential of natural forest wood above 10 cubic meters per hectare.

The process of giving permission and SP3 cases to the illegal logging of timber to 13 companies in Riau showed evidence keberpihakan the government to companies. The government whispering while employers get the problem. although the problem as a result of the act through their own practices, such as illegal logging. However, when poor people get a natural ecological disaster as a result of the prolonged ekploitasi natural resources, even the government says, it is as usual and that it is a natural phenomenon, and not least, the money in the disaster response even corruption by the State apparatus.

In addition to PT Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP), other companies that enjoy the natural forests are PT Indah KIAT Pulp and Paper (IKPP), PT Arara Abadi, PT Bina Duta Laksana, PT Rimba Mandau Lestari, PT Jaya Main segment , Madukoro PT, PT Merbau Pelalawan Lestari, PT Nusa Manunggal Prima, PT Bukit Indah Batubuh Sel, PT Citra Sumber Sejahtera, and PT Mitra Selaras Kembang. With the SP3, the forest products that have been will be returned to the company and this company can continue business forest loging harmful for all people of Indonesia.

In addition to the license and remove SP3 cases to the illegal logging of timber companies, the government also provides various convenience to companies to continue to extend this concession HTI in various ways, including by using violence.

This can be seen on the Tragedy mysticism nugget at Bengkalis district, on 18 December 2008 in which PT Arara Abadi (one of the companies that get SP3 illegal logging cases) by using the strength of POLDA Riau, Satpol PP, attack the settlements inhabited KK 1300 and has been burning more less than 500 homes, 2 killed five, shot 2 people and dozens of other farmers injured and arrested without a clear reason. When this village, which is recognized by the State administrative changed immediately become HTI plantation. In this case the government has not only do violation human rights with the weight but does not recognize the very real existence of the people as one of the elements of a nation.

Chrusading something that will be reasonable if this is left to continue. The Government will continue to be subject to the owner of capital and will continue to torment the people. Therefore, we stated:

1. PHK reject conducted by PT. RAPP industry and pulp and paper in Indonesia, for reasons clear only to be resourceful PHK from the company to negotiate with the government so that they are given the management of natural forest expansion.
2. SP3 reject cases illegal logging issued by law enforcement in Riau, because clearly it conflicts with a sense of justice for the people and will remain in the Indonesia environtment
3. Rescue of the pulp and paper industry by the government must involve trade unions, farmers' unions, indigenous peoples, environmental organizations and elements of the other community. This will be the assurance that the government will precede the interests of the people rather than the interests of capital owners.

Environmental damage in the Central Climate Change Threats

(by Ari Muhammad)

REPORT of the Fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or IPCC end of 2007 the temperature changes, the impact has been to many physical and biological systems of nature. Level possible threat of climate change is high confidence, has a number Percentage of around 80%.

Reports working group responsible for the knowledge and technology (Scientific & Technology) and even estimate the end of the 21st century, earth's temperature will increase 1,8-4 C, while the surface of the sea water will rise up to 28 - 43 cm, if there is no serious effort decrease the concentration of Glass House Gas (Grk).

Poor quality of the environment due to edge issues and the impact of environmental factors in the development of a major environmental disaster that affects the quality of social and economic development. This put the region on the vulnerability of the larger environmental disaster. This situation means that climate change will encourage and accelerate the disaster and environmental degradation.

Habituate just what happens in big cities, for example Jakarta. When the green and the water catchment and lacking (plus lack of coordination among the guard and maintain the management of the watershed upstream to downstream) has decreased due to inconsistencies of local governments (local governments) to plan space own governance. Rain with a high intensity easily "disappear" some major areas Jakarta.

On the other hand, the study reports the Department of Public Works (2007) said that the impact of the threat of climate change increase the surface of the sea water will become a threat to some industries such as oil rig and gas in the sea, transportation, fishery, agriculture and ecotourism villages and coastal communities. This report is the strengthening of statement fourth IPCC report.

In the context of decentralization and autonomy, environmental degradation, particularly due to changes in land-including the forest-fire, and legal and illegal logging have been reported and often delivered through a number of advocacy organizations that have a concern with environmental issues. Thus the revitalization of the policy environment, including the threat of climate change is already on top priority.

IPCC said that the South will experience a decrease in rainfall and the North region will have increased rainfall. The threat of drought due to El-Nino phenomenon would also (again) become factor incentives for forest fires that have been the millions of hectares of forest land. Threats to increased in surface sea water and the threat of sinking the islands.

The failure of environmental management is including the "marginalization" environmental issues by each sector. For example, appear on the issue of watershed management. Data shows that the issue of water in major cities in Indonesia, not only due to high water run off as a result of the lack of and catch the water but also water quality due to industrial pollution, sea water intrusion, the decline in ground water and drought.

Flooding problems at this time, not only dominated in urban areas. In the scope of climate change and the failure of environmental management before, the increase of rainfall a potential threat to flood the facilities and infrastructure damaged and wet lands.

With some throught climate change convention as the commitment countries in the fight against global warming and start said little time in the last two years the issue of climate change adaptation to be the main focus of attention and developing countries and the poor.

The limited resources of funds, technology, and human positioned countries are highly vulnerable to climate change. Adaptation to climate change is defined as the ability of a system (including ecosystems, social, economic, and institutional) to overcome the impact of climate change. Therefore, these countries are encouraged to have the ability adaptation (adaptative capacity), the ability of a system (including ecosystems, social, economic, and institutional) to adjust to the impact of climate change, reducing the damage, take advantage of the opportunity, and overcome the consequences.

With the push of adaptation to climate change into national development agenda or the region, risk considerations and the impact of climate change is translated not only in the medium term strategic plan, but also to the policies and institutional structures.

During this time, more focus on the development of economic considerations alone. But evidence shows that economic development is not a conception environment will be more "sensitive" to the economic ruin itself. Hurricanes Mitch incident, that the country's economic growth in their overthrow of 4-5% year. Data presented the World Bank between 1984 to 2003, the percentage of loss of national income three times larger occurred in the low-income countries and middle (80% of the world) as a result of climate change.

Problems in the climate change, is a loss incurred will be greater than the fix cost after the disaster occurred. Therefore, the Government should have put the issue of the failure of environmental management as a priority at this time.

Second priority, budget allocation and Expenditure Budget Financing Country or Region should have been efforts to integrate adaptation in all sectors related to the vulnerability to climate change. In other words, rather than waiting 'litle money' from the countries that are required to provide funding for adaptation commitment not know when that realization.