Thursday, December 25, 2008

The influence of Mangrove Forest Fishery Production

Mangrove forest is always associated with water. As a community that would form the ecosystem of the existence of mangrove can not dimarginalkan. Mangrove forests have multiple functions that can not be replaced by other ecosystems. Physical function as penstabil land (land stabilizer) which is involved in substrate accumulate mud perakaran by mangroves so often bring relief and land also able to withstand sea water abrasion and able to intercept sea-water intrusion to the mainland. Biologisnya function is as a shelter, breed and lay eggs for the fish. Meanwhile, the economic mangrove forests that produce timber kalornya high value so that it is good raw material for charcoal. The last function is a function of chemical waste as penetralisir dangerous toxic chemicals.

The day the existence of the mangrove forest is not exactly the width of land subside. The development of population, with the increasing needs, quickly urged the mangrove forest and trying to replace the business other than the "benefit" in terms of finance but in fact very harmful to the environment. Finally, interactions with the business appear repeatedly chop mangrove forest that is. There is no public awareness of the benefits will be double that if the exploit can be found fishing in the mangrove forest, the interactions of the reign of the brackish water.

Now is time people should be aware, and try to combine with the interactions of the mangrove forest, so in addition to financial benefits obtained, preservation of nature - the ecosystem - to be awake.

Starting from the mangrove forest as a nursery ground on the top, seemingly for the utilization of mangrove fishery business will be more promising good results because of research by making demplot about the influence of mangrove fishery production was carried out.
Or that the mangrove forest is often referred to as mangroves not mean that only a forest of mangrove trees (Rhizophora spp) only. However, a forest of tropical plants, prepared by the community and grow in the intertidal zone. Intertidal zone is the area under the influence of ebb and flow along the coast, as well as the coastline, estuari, lagoons, and river bank.

In general, mangrove trees and arranged on the shrub that grows in the bottom of the tidal highest (FAO, 1952). The area is an area that, where the mud gradually glued to sedimentation caused by the unique mangrove roots. The slowly will change to the semi terestrial (semi mainland). Mud-mud comes from the erosion of land on top of it. Thus the mangrove ecosystem can be if there is a supply of sediment from the river met the sea. In addition, factors that support the growth of mangrove beaches are protected by coral reefs or islands that are located offshore, so that the small waves.

The first plants that make up the mud plains of the type that is resistant to higher salinity of the land plants in general and submerged sea water resistant. Is the dominant vegetation in the mangrove forest of them divided into three zoning: Avicennia sp, the type that has a root of breath / antenna; Rhizophora sp, which has roots tunjang; and Bruguiera sp knee that has roots.

Based on biologisnya function as a nursery ground memijah or where the fish and keep children, ecosystems are often converted by local residents as the area pond.

Tambak is a fish farm in a specific area that is managed so that intensive get optimal results. Pengelolan pond system associated with mangrove forests have been developed and is known by the term silvofishery or wanamina. The terminology silvofishery derived from two words, namely the means silvo forest and Fishery, which means fish farm. Similarly in Indonesia, which is often referred to as wanamina that have overlapping meanings essence of fishing effort with the mangrove forest. Initially, the system is the management of the mangrove forest ancient approach that requires research and assessment of the more modern.

According to William Fitzgerald (1997), silvofishery is a form of integration between the cultivation of mangrove pond with brackish water. Relationship is expected to establish an ecological balance, so that the pond which is lack of ecological elements producers have to be supplied through the provision of food, tersuplai will be subsidized by the manufacturer (marine biota) from the mangrove forest.

The balance of the mangrove forest ecosystem can not be detached from the environmental conditions that support it. How oxygen, sunlight, temperature and salinity of water can support the balance of the ecosystem. In the brackish water that needed sunlight to be used by fitoplankton to berfotosintesis and produce oxygen in the water terlarut so that will be used by the other elements of the system.

Water temperature is also closely associated with other factors such as the womb and oxygen terlarut The bacterial activity. The salinity is very important for the growth of mangrove, because the mangrove forest can not live without the appropriate salinity.

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