Wednesday, May 28, 2008

Energy Resources and Renewable Fuel Indonesia Future

By: Dr.Rudianto Amirta
Lecturer Faculty of Forestry, University Mulawarman-Borneo

As we all know, Indonesia is one of several countries in the world known to have forest areas are still relatively high, in addition to Brazil and Zaire. Indonesia's geographical location is right on the Equator line, make this country as one of the owners of wet tropical forests are still owned by the world today.
Indonesia wet tropical forest areas known to store a variety of biological richness (biodiversity). WWF Indonesia even reported that the forest area in Indonesia, especially those in East Kalimantan (Kayan Mentarang Malinau) has about 15,000 species of plants in each square kilimoter of the region, and the value of this diversity is the highest, when compared to any region in advance earth (Pio, 2008).

Not only that, the forests of Borneo is also known to store the wealth of diverse endemic plant species. 6000 recorded plant species are classified into this classification, including 155 species dipterokarpa an economically and ecologically has a very important role to people's lives in this region. But unfortunately, the potential for a high diversity is not fully felt the benefit, given that most of the wealth of biodiversity is not yet known and the unknown function and usefulness, both economically and ecologically to support human life that inhabit it in a sustainable manner.

Lignocellulose is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and also ligninKetidaktahuan nature and function will be a major factor and potential cause of ketidakbermanfaatannya forests and a rich source of biomass is lignocellulose content. Today, forests are not only built to produce wood-construction timber to meet the needs of building construction, meubeler well as pulp and paper raw materials alone. Since the last few years, developing ideas and also the potential of forest biomass utilization technologies are big and rich content of this lignocellulosic (lignocellulosic biomass) as a feedstock to produce fuel, energy and chemicals are renewable (Watanabe, 2007).

Lignosellulosa is a term commonly used to describe the main components of a plant constituent, either in the form of wood (wood), and non-tree (non-woody) such as grass, hay and so forth. These components can generally be found starting from the roots, stems and leaves of plants. As shown in Figure 2., Chemically berlignosellulosa biomass will be composed of three main components: cellulose (38-50%), lignin (15-30%), and hemisellulosa (23-32%) (Sierra et al. , 2007).

Today, the use of forest biomass that is rich in content of lignocellulose as penghara (feedstock) in producing environmentally friendly fuel (bioethanol) becomes very important and interesting to be mainly based on three main advantages it has. First, biomass berlignoselulosa a source of raw materials which are renewable (renewable resources), so it can be developed in a sustainable future. Second, the type of fuel in biomass sourced produce almost no emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thus a very positive impact on the environment.

Closed carbon cycle on the use of fuels derived from biomass that berlignoselulosaKetiga, biomass fuels have economic potential of a highly profitable and significant, especially if associated with the phenomenon of declining production and the ever increasing price of fossil fuels in the future (Cadenas and Cabezudo, 1998; Demirbas , 2007). Moreover, forest biomass, waste wood industry and agriculture that are rich in lignocellulose content is not a food, so their utilization as fuel and energy will not interfere with the availability of food reserves that we have (non-edible biomass).

Especially with regard to bioethanol, the government of Indonesia has prepared a road map or roadmap development, production of renewable fuels. In the roadmap, the government plans to produce bioethanol by using materials sourced berlignosellulosa biomass from forests, the timber industry and agricultural waste to replace the use of food, as it exists today (planned for the years 2016 to 2025).

In response to the plan and as a first step in order to create and fill the bioethanol industry roadmap development of an independent Indonesia, since two years ago we have been conducting a series of studies we focused on efforts to identify and perform the selection of the suitability of the use of several plant species, especially the wood- tropical wood that has the potential to be converted into bioethanol. Identification and selection process we have done by analyzing the chemical content of the wood and the potential for reduced sugar held (after the hydraulic enzymatically) by the tropical forest biomass berlignoselulosa. As this research we do as part of adaptation to the rapidly growing technological advances, particularly in the manufacturing process of bioethanol.

Roadmap development of bio-ethanol industry Indonesia 2006 ~ 2025 (ESDM - Anonymous, 2010) The results of the research we've done shows that some types of tropical forest timber which is known as a pioneer species of secondary forests, fast growing and can adapt to poor soil environment which would be elements of nutrients, and so far not been used and very low economic value as applicable, breadfruit, and sengon Bungur proved to have a very high level of compliance, and potential for development as a major raw material of bioethanol in the future (lignocellulosic biomass). Positive suitability assessment will use the wood as raw material for bioethanol is characterized by the potential of the sugar content is classified as very high tereduksinya, where applicable wood (Artocarpus elasticus) reached 73.59%, sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) 70.25%, Bungur (Lagerstromia speciosa) 69.06% and breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) 67.84% (w / w). As far as we know, the results of this study is the first findings that show the potential of technology in the manufacture of sugar Variation bioetanolterreduksi a very high level of timber pioneer tropical regions, especially of pioneer species that grows and many encountered in Southeast Asia.

Not only that, the forest and plantation area in Indonesia is also a raw material reserves tremendous energy for Indonesia. Biodiesel and energy pellets can also be developed to exploit the potential of this large biomass. Today, almost every district and city areas, particularly those in Sumatra and Borneo is a center or base of the development of plantations and palm oil processing industry in this country.

Nationally, coconut oil is one of Indonesia in achieving commodity exchange. For 20 years (1985-2005) recorded accretion of oil palm plantation area as much as 837%, this is evidenced by the contribution of oil palm on national export as much as 6%, is also the number one commodity of Indonesia products beyond oil and gas sector. However, the positive impact of the development of the oil palm industry also generates a negative effect on the environment if the waste generated is not well managed.

Mass balance in the palm oil processing industry (Kismanto, 2006-modified; Amirta et al., 2008) If we examine the processing of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) into crude palm oil (CPO), then approximately 45% of the input of fresh fruit processed will eventually turn into solid waste in the form of a shell / shell (shell), fibers (fiber) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) (Fig. 6). Half of the amount of solid waste is a palm empty fruit bunches. A very large number, considering the amount of fresh oil palm fruit is processed continues to increase from time to time, as well as the capacity of the oil processing industry plantation.

As an example of East Kalimantan Province, currently operates several oil palm plantation companies with the realization that the planting area has reached 714,000 ha with an annual production level of crude palm oil (CPO) of 2.5 million tons (annual production of fresh fruit ± 12, 5 million tons). A large amount of production is supported by the presence of 18 palm oil mills scattered in most areas of this province (Anonymous, 2010). If it is assumed that 20% of waste empty fruit bunches will be generated from the processing of oil per ton of fresh fruit, then at least there are currently about 2.5 million potential waste, which is ready to be harnessed into products of high economic value, one of which is bio-pellets ( pellet energy).

So far the utilization of oil palm solid waste to generate energy is limited as a solid fuel in boilers (boilers), especially for solid waste in the form of shell / shell and fibers. Particularly for the waste palm empty fruit bunches, utilization as a solid fuel boiler has a constraint / obstacle is the high content of water (moisture) 60% and the resulting pollution.

However, the technology development process that has been done, we were able to significantly improve the quality and calorific value of energy produced bio-pellet/pellet products. So far, our results could change padatn waste oil palm empty fruit bunches into alternative energy products with average calorific value or heat of ± 5000 kcal / kg. Not only that, the results of this study is also the first to report findings that the waste oil palm empty fruit bunches can be processed into a source of energy that could have a calorific value / heat are relatively high, reaching a value of 5354 kcal / kg, equivalent to 22.4 MJ / kg.


The product is potentially vast energy pellets to be developed. Industrial development opportunities and bio-pellet production is very dependent on the level of demand for these products on the market of energy, whether originating from within the country (domestic), as well as from abroad. With a calorific value that is owned by the bio-pellets made from waste oil palm empty fruit bunches at this time, ie> 5000 kcal / kg, in fact, is well above the requirements of the Low Rank Coal (LRC) or low-calorie coal required by the Electricity Company State (PLN) for use as fuel pembangit electricity (power plants) nationwide, to support programs of national electricity supply (the heat / heat 3900 ~ 4700 kcal / kg).

PLN needs to LRC was published and delivered in a variety of occasions and in several national media coverage. Citing media coverage of Indonesia at the end of 2009, `PT PLN (Persero) to tender the procurement of low-calorie coal (low rank coal - LRC) to meet the power needs of 3.26 million tons per year`. That means, bio-waste pellets palm empty fruit bunches is a big chance to be developed to meet national energy needs from year to year tend to increase.

Therefore, East Kalimantan and several other provinces which became centers of palm oil plantation and processing likely to be the center of industrial development bio-pellet/pellet energy raw materials of oil palm solid wastes, given the extensive plantations and palm oil production levels which have been held at this time. Not only that, the oil palm plantation development program of 1 million hectares was initiated by local governments will also be synergized with the development of bio-pellet industry in order to realize the capabilities and independence of the region in producing energy from renewable sources they have at this time.

In addition to having on the domestic market, renewable energy products such as bio-pellets of solid waste from palm oil is also a big chance to be exported to overseas. Current trends world's needs for energy pellets are very good products and continue to increase from year to year. Reported by Swaan and Melin (2008) and Ekstrom (2009), each year the countries of Europe and America needs about 14 ~ 15 million tons of pellet energy products, both made of wood, agricultural waste, and so forth. Generally, energy pellets used as fuel for heating purposes in winter. However, the current need for energy pellets tend to increase, along with the development of its use as a fuel substitute for coal substitution for the purposes of existing industries in those countries.

Start from the various explanations that have been given, we sincerely hope we can follow the explanation and the results of this research into an investing opportunity in order to maximize the use of natural resources at our disposal, energy and fuel supply sufficient for the community, especially for those who rural region of residence, about forests and plantations that so far relatively untouched by the reliable supply of energy and fuel as we who live the urban region. Moreover, through these efforts we can actually play an active role in maintaining the environment, save it from global warming is going through a real effort in the form of environmentally friendly energy use, renewable and derived from renewable biomass that we have a lot of this.

4 comments:

PeaceFromTrees said...

Great work... If you don't object I'd like to add portions of your post in my tree newsletter

at http://olyecology.livejournal.com

Bunda Rierie said...

treen...kemana nich....bunda khan mau blajr bahas inggris...

ed said...

A片,A片,成人網站,成人影片,色情,情色網,情色,AV,AV女優,成人影城,成人,色情A片,日本AV,免費成人影片,成人影片,SEX,免費A片,A片下載,免費A片下載,做愛,情色A片,色情影片,H漫,A漫,18成人

a片,色情影片,情色電影,a片,色情,情色網,情色,av,av女優,成人影城,成人,色情a片,日本av,免費成人影片,成人影片,情色a片,sex,免費a片,a片下載,免費a片下載,成人網站,做愛,自拍

情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣,情趣

情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣,情趣,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣,情趣,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣,情趣,情趣用品
情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品.情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣.
視訊聊天室

情色,AV女優,UT聊天室,聊天室,A片,視訊聊天室


UT聊天室,視訊聊天室,辣妹視訊,視訊辣妹,情色視訊,視訊,080視訊聊天室,視訊交友90739,美女視訊,視訊美女,免費視訊聊天室,免費視訊聊天,免費視訊,視訊聊天室,視訊聊天,視訊交友網,視訊交友,情人視訊網,成人視訊,哈啦聊天室,UT聊天室,豆豆聊天室,
聊天室,聊天,色情聊天室,色情,尋夢園聊天室,聊天室尋夢園,080聊天室,080苗栗人聊天室,柔情聊天網,小高聊天室,上班族聊天室,080中部人聊天室,中部人聊天室,成人聊天室,成人

宮保雞丁Alex said...

徵信社,尋人,偵探,偵探社,徵才,私家偵探,徵信,徵信社,徵信公司,抓猴,出軌,婚姻,劈腿,感情,第三者,婚外情,一夜情,小老婆,外遇,商標,市場調查,公平交易法,抓姦,債務,債務協商,應收帳款,詐欺,離婚,監護權,法律諮詢,法律常識,離婚諮詢,錄音,找人,追蹤器,GPS,徵信,徵信公司,尋人,抓姦,外遇,徵信,徵信社,徵信公司,尋人,抓姦,外遇,徵信,徵信社,徵信公司,尋人,抓姦,外遇,徵信,徵信社,徵信公司,尋人,抓姦,外遇,徵信社